Protein description page title

1. What is Protein and where does it come from?

Protein is one of the three primary macronutrients, along with carbohydrates and fat. All macronutrients contain carbon, oxygen and hydrogen molecules; however, protein differs in that it also contains nitrogen. Once protein is consumed, it is broken down into its component parts including the basic building blocks of protein, amino acids.

Protein's building blocks, amino acids, are classified as essential, nonessential, and conditionally essential. Amino acids which the body cannot produce are essential because they must be consumed. Conditionally essential amino acids must be consumed only under certain circumstances.

Amino acids which are important to the human body and their classification are displayed on the amino acid table of the amino acids page.

Proteins containing all of the essential amino acids are deemed complete proteins because the body can break them down and create any proteins, nonessential amino acids, enzymes, hormones or structural components needed in the body.

Examples of complete proteins, high in essential amino acids, are animal-based proteins such as chicken, beef, pork, fish, milk, cheese, as well as milk proteins such as wheycaseinegg and plant-based soy protein. Additionally, certain combinations of incomplete proteins such as beans and rice are complementary and form a complete protein when consumed together.

The most convenient and highest quality protein sources available are protein shakes and protein bars, which are specifically formulated to have an ideal balance of essential amino acids to be effectively used within the body.

2. What does Protein do and what scientific studies give evidence to support this? What are the main types of protein supplements?

Protein is vital to life. Proteins are used in the body for anabolic purposes, assisting in the growth and repair of body tissues as well as for catabolic purposes such as energy production.

Protein is an important nutrient for strength and stamina. It is a primary component of muscle tissue. Nevertheless, protein has all kinds of uses in the body, not just muscle building. It is used as structural material for cells and tissues, keratin in skin and elastin in connective tissue to name a few. It also plays a role in providing essential building blocks that help regulate important metabolic processes.

The goal with athletes, bodybuilders and strength training individuals is to maintain nitrogen balance. Because nitrogen is a byproduct of protein metabolism, its excretion can be measured against its consumption. When nitrogen consumption and excretion are equal the body is said to be in nitrogen balance. If more nitrogen is excreted been consumed, the body is in negative nitrogen balance, which means one might be losing precious muscle.

Supplementing one's diet with additional protein supplements can be highly beneficial, enhancing muscle tissue growth and serving as an energy source available during exercise. Due to the incredible efficiency of the human body, if adequate amino acids are not available during an intense workout, the body may start to cannibalize muscle tissue to make up for the deficit. That's why pre-workout and post-workout protein supplementation is vitally important for maintaining nitrogen balance and building muscle mass with protein consumption.

One study found that when a group of individuals was split up and given either 40 g of essential amino acids or a placebo, then followed an identical resistance training program, the group taking amino acids showed greater muscle growth.

A follow-up study was then conducted with the same protocols, except this time with 6 g of essential amino acids and 36 g of sucralose taken either pre-workout, postworkout, or at both times. what is interesting is that the data shows that group that consumed the essential amino acid and sugar combination before exercise produced a 158% greater anabolic effect than those who consumed it immediately after training (International Journal Of Sports Nutrition And Exercise Metabolism, 109-32. 2001). This study suggests that not only do amino acids assist muscle growth and energy for resistance training individuals, but the best time to consume this particular mixture is pre-workout.

Some of the different types of protein supplements are: Meal Replacements, Whey Protein, Casein, Soy Protein, Egg Protein, and Protein bars. Of these some variations include: Low Carb, High Carb, Protein Blends, Protein Bars and straight Amino Acids. Let's look at each of these.

  • Meal Replacements - Nutritious "Fast Food"

    Meal Replacements (MRP's) are basically a protein powder that contains vitamins and minerals so that a serving will provide an adequate daily value of nutrients so as to "replace a meal". These are awesome, probably the most underrated supplement around. Many people use them because you know exactly what you are getting and they are a lot healthier than many other forms of fast food. These are a good way to go, although the price may be higher than basic protein sources such as whey protein concentrate.

  • Whey Protein - Most popular form of protein supplementation

    Whey Protein is derived from cheese. It is highly absorbed and easily assimilated. Whey is the way to go for a post workout shake because it gets into your system very rapidly and that's the most important time to get it! Less than half an hour is all it takes for the body to process it. Whey protein is generally available in as main types; the higher quality, more expensive isolate and the less expensive, genericconcentrate.

  • Casein - Slow digesting nighttime protein

    Casein is a milk based protein that takes longer than other types of protein supplements to be fully absorbed. Because it digests over a 2-7 hour time period, it works great as a nighttime protein supplement.

  • Soy Protein - Vegetarians' delight

    Soy Protein is one of the healthiest forms of protein because it provides a heart-healthy alternative to meat. As one of the only plant-based complete proteins, soy is great news for vegetarians. It is also beneficial for women because it provides estrogen support in women. It's ok for men to use soy, just not all the time as for women.

  • Egg Protein - Complete protein source

    Egg Protein is a good source, so long as no more than one yolk is consumed daily. More than one yolk exceeds the RDA for cholesterol (300 mg). Egg protein powder in a supplement shake provides a good anytime protein that absorbs at a medium pace (1.5-3 hours). Supplement powders also taste good and are great in terms of cholesterol as well.

  • Protein Blends - Versatile balanced protein source

    Protein Blends can be found in supplement protein powders and they have their benefits. For one thing, you get a variable absorption rate which means you get the best of all worlds. For another, you get a balanced source that is easy to consume.

  • Low Carb - Strictly protein

    Straight protein supplement powders are low carb by nature; however, many manufacturers add in sugars to make it taste better. The low carb ones tend to be pretty much straight protein or use a sugar substitute that has little or no caloric value. These are great for those low carb diets and also for those who want to control their macronutrient intake with more precision, getting carbs from other sources. One caution: for the post workout shake, a little carbs are good to help your body absorb the protein easier by initiating an insulin spike.

  • High Carb/Weight Gainers - High calorie deliciousness

    On the other end of the spectrum, we have Weight Gainers (high carb). These are very popular for those trying to put on mass because they have a high ratio of carbs to proteins and may also include a healthy amount of fat. As calories are the real reason people put on weight, these tend to have higher serving sizes that are calorie dense.

  • Protein Bars - Convenient and tasty

    Protein bars are as convenient as can be and delicious if you find the right ones! Gone are the days of chalky disgusting protein bars. There are many chewy, delicious flavors to choose from! Many bars have a good mix of protein, carbs, fat, vitamins and minerals; but, they specialize so check the label. Also, remember you can always cut a bar in half, saving half for later and that would cut the calories in half if you're counting.

  • Amino Acids - The building blocks

    There are quite a few straight amino supplements out there and they can be great for muscle growth as well. You cannot get the quantity of protein this way, but you can get quality. You also know you're getting all the essential aminos to make a complete protein and branched chain aminos as well for increased muscle growth. These are great to take preworkout to give your body the building blocks it needs during your workout to respond to the stress you place on it.

Biological value is one of the measures of quality of a protein source. The higher the biological value, the higher quality protein. Below is a comparative reference of biological values of protein supplements and foods.

BIOLOGICAL VALUESSupplements:

    • Whey Protein Isolate 159
    • Whey Protein Concentrate 104
    • Casein 77
    • Soy 74



Food:

  • Eggs (whole) 100
  • Eggs (whites) 88
  • Chicken / Turkey 79
  • Fish 70
  • Lean Beef 69
  • Cow's Milk 60

3. Who needs Protein and how much should be taken? Are there any side effects or symptoms of deficiency?

Everyone needs a daily amount of protein to live. Protein can be particularly beneficial to hard training athletes and bodybuilders bulking up who are looking to put on excess muscle mass.

How much should you consume? According to the National Academy of Sciences, protein should comprise 10% to 35% of total daily caloric intake. Of the three macronutrients, protein is valued at 4 calories per gram, as are carbohydrates, while fat is valued at 9 calories per gram.

The RDA for protein is 0.8 grams per kg (.36 grams per lb). Depending on your goal and which diet plan you follow, this number may seem a bit low. Although it's debatable the adequate or optimal level of protein consumption, many personal trainers, sports doctors and scientists now recommend 1.2 to 1.8 g per kilogram of body weight for those who regularly exercise; depending on a persons type of training, intensity, duration, frequency, overall caloric intake and body composition goals. In fact, many experts have recommended as high as 1 to 2 grams per pound of body weight, especially if you're on a low carb diet.

Deficiencies are rare because most people consume enough protein in the average diet. Those who are at risk from protein deficiency and may benefit from protein supplementation are people on low calorie diets, vegetarians, people with allergies or stress-related diseases and people with hypoglycemia. Other people who may show signs of protein deficiency could be people with trouble digesting food. This could be due to a lack of digestive enzymes, which are synthesized by the body combining amino acids; but they may also be supplemented.

Contrary to popular belief, an adequate daily intake of essential amino acids can be obtained entirely from plant sources although it requires more of a conscious effort. If the vegetarian diet has sufficient variety and planning and contains adequate amounts of legumes, soy protein, seeds and nuts, grains, fruits and vegetables, then the recommended daily allowance of protein can be achieved. Vegetarians who consume eggs and milk products or protein supplements are much less likely to have a deficiency. 

Excess protein consumption is generally not a major concern unless protein consumption is ridiculously excessive for long periods of time. In this case, it may lead to long-term problems, so caution should be used to make sure one is not consuming more protein than is necessary. Excess protein is broken down into components which can either be used as fuel (sugars), excreted by the kidneys (nitrogen) or stored as fat (fatty acids). The key is getting "enough", but like anything, you can get too much of a good thing.

Maintain muscle, stamina and strength with protein supplements from A1Supplements.com and make the gains in lean muscle mass you desire! 

Author: Travis Smith, © 2002-2007.

References:

Gretchen Ferraro, M.A., et al. Sports Nutrition Review. 2004.
Katch, Frank. Katch, Victor, McArdle, William (2001). Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance (5th Ed.). Maryland: Lippincott William and Wilkins.
http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/DRI//DRI_Energy/589-768.pdf
http://www.oralchelation.com/technical/amino1.htm#t3
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Complete_protein
http://recipes.howstuffworks.com/food3.htm
http://healthguide.howstuffworks.com/amino-acids-dictionary.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_in_nutrition
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amino_acid
http://www.veganhealth.org/articles/protein
http://www.gettinglean.com/veg.htm
http://www.gettinglean.com/build_muscle.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essential_amino_acid
Houston, Michael (2001). Biochemistry Primer for Exercise Science (2nd Ed.). Illinois: Human Kinetics.
Tipton, KD, et al. International Journal Of Sports Nutrition And Exercise Metabolism, 109-32. 2001. Vince Andrich. Sports Supplement Review, Fourth Issue. 2001.
Widmaier, Eric. Raff, Hershal, Kevin, Strange (2004). Human Physiology: The Mechanisms of Body Function (9th Ed.) Boston: Mcgraw Hill. 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. 

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