Learn More About Appetite Suppressants

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1. What Are Appetite Suppressants?

Anorectics, anorexigenics or appetite suppressants are substances (dietary supplements or drugs) that reduce the appetite and cause a person to eat less.

The category of products that are considered ‘appetite suppressants’ include some cross-over in the diet/energy category as well as non-thermogenic products

2. Who Needs Appetite Suppressants?

This category of product is typically used only by those who need quite a bit of assistance in losing body weight. It is NOT recommended for the performance athlete.

However, anyone looking for that extra boost of energy during the day or in the gym could also benefit from an appetite suppressant because of it's energy enhancing effects.

3. What Does The Science Show?

Hoodia: Studies conducted at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR, South Africa) identified extracts from Hoodia species, in particular Hoodia pilifera and Hoodia gordonii, as possessing appetite suppressing properties. Hoodia supplementation has been shown to result in a decrease of food consumption and body weight over an eight day period when compared to the control; the most commonly consumed dosage of Hoodia is 3,000 mg daily.1-9

Citrimax: Super CitriMax (HCA-SX) is a calcium/potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid extracted from the dried fruit rind of the plant Garcinia cambogia. Garcinia, as it is most commonly referred to, has been studied to see its effect on inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance; the data clearly show that HCA-SX supplementation in reduces food-intake, body weight gain, and also lessens the increases in inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance observed. Therefore, according to one study “HCA-SX may be used as an intervention to overcome obesity-related complications, including inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance.”10, 11 A commonly consumed dose of Garcinia cambogia (Standardized 50% [500 Mg] [-] Hydroxycitrate Extract) 1000-3000 mg daily.

Yohimbine: The natural alpha-2 antagonist yohimbine can, when taken before exercise, boost lipolysis (i.e. fat breakdown) and serum free fatty acid levels both during and following exercise.12 Also, yohimbine can reduce food intake as well.13 Note that yohimbine is derived from the yohimbe tree. Yohimbine is often taken at a dose roughly equal to 0.2mg/kg. One study showed that supplementation resulted in decreased body fat in the yohimbine group after the supplementation protocol. Also, fat mass was significantly lower in the yohimbine versus placebo trial at post-supplementation.14

Magnolia: A recent study measured the effects of a proprietary blend of extracts of Magnolia officinalis and Phellodendron amurense (Relora) on anxiety, stress and sleep in healthy premenopausal women. The intervention was Relora (250 mg capsules) or identical placebo 3 times daily for 6 weeks. Relora was effective, in comparison to placebo, in reducing temporary, transitory anxiety.15 Though appetite suppression wasn’t demonstrated in this study, it would stand to reason that by modulating anxiety, it might therefore help one cope with stress by perhaps not using food as a stress relief.

Bitter Orange & Caffeine: Usually thought of as a thermogenic, this combination does in fact act as a appetitie suppressant. Bitter Orange, aka citrus aurantium, contains m-synephrine (phenylephrine) and octopamine and has been added to various weight loss supplements because of its appetite suppressing effect as well as its thermogenic properties. When you combine bitter orange, green tea and guarana, you can increase calorie burning tremendously. 16 Bitter orange plus caffeine is a potent combination that has been to even enhance exercise endurance by 29%.17 Thus, this combination is one of the most prevalent in the category.

Phenylethylamine: Beta-phenylethylamine (PEA) is an endogenous amine that resembles amphetamine in chemical structure.18 A review of the literature shows that brain phenylethylamine (PEA) may be a neuromodulator of aminergic synapses and that it promotes energy, elevates mood, and favors aggression. Perhaps by elevating mood PEA, may act as a modulator of appetite as well.

4. Is It Safe?

Many of these products are indeed safe when used as directed.

References:

Jainu M, Mohan KV, Devi CS. Protective effect of Cissus quadrangularis on neutrophil mediated tissue injury induced by aspirin in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. Apr 6 2006;104(3):302-305.
Wu YT, Lin LC, Tsai TH. Simultaneous determination of honokiol and magnolol in Magnolia officinalis by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection. Biomed Chromatogr. Oct 2006;20(10):1076-1081.
Avula B, Wang YH, Pawar RS, Shukla YJ, Khan IA. Chemical fingerprinting of Hoodia species and related genera: chemical analysis of oxypregnane glycosides using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection in Hoodia gordonii. J AOAC Int. Nov-Dec 2007;90(6):1526-1531.
Avula B, Wang YH, Pawar RS, Shukla YJ, Schaneberg B, Khan IA. Determination of the appetite suppressant P57 in Hoodia gordonii plant extracts and dietary supplements by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-MSD-TOF) and LC-UV methods. J AOAC Int. May-Jun 2006;89(3):606-611.
Dall'Acqua S, Innocenti G. Steroidal glycosides from Hoodia gordonii. Steroids. Jun 2007;72(6-7):559-568.
Sallee FR, Sethuraman G, Sine L, Liu H. Yohimbine challenge in children with anxiety disorders. Am J Psychiatry. Aug 2000;157(8):1236-1242.
Pawar RS, Shukla YJ, Khan IA. New calogenin glycosides from Hoodia gordonii. Steroids. Nov 2007;72(13):881-891.
Pawar RS, Shukla YJ, Khan SI, Avula B, Khan IA. New oxypregnane glycosides from appetite suppressant herbal supplement Hoodia gordonii. Steroids. Jun 2007;72(6-7):524-534.
van Heerden FR, Marthinus Horak R, Maharaj VJ, Vleggaar R, Senabe JV, Gunning PJ. An appetite suppressant from Hoodia species. Phytochemistry. Oct 2007;68(20):2545-2553.
Asghar M, Monjok E, Kouamou G, Ohia SE, Bagchi D, Lokhandwala MF. Super CitriMax (HCA-SX) attenuates increases in oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin resistance, and body weight in developing obese Zucker rats. Mol Cell Biochem. Oct 2007;304(1-2):93-99.
Soni MG, Burdock GA, Preuss HG, Stohs SJ, Ohia SE, Bagchi D. Safety assessment of (-)-hydroxycitric acid and Super CitriMax, a novel calcium/potassium salt. Food Chem Toxicol. Sep 2004;42(9):1513-1529.
McCarty MF. Pre-exercise administration of yohimbine may enhance the efficacy of exercise training as a fat loss strategy by boosting lipolysis. Med Hypotheses. Jun 2002;58(6):491-495.
Callahan MF, Beales M, Oltmans GA. Yohimbine and rauwolscine reduce food intake of genetically obese (obob) and lean mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. Apr 1984;20(4):591-599.
Ostojic SM. Yohimbine: the effects on body composition and exercise performance in soccer players. Res Sports Med. Oct-Dec 2006;14(4):289-299.
Kalman DS, Feldman S, Feldman R, Schwartz HI, Krieger DR, Garrison R. Effect of a proprietary Magnolia and Phellodendron extract on stress levels in healthy women: a pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Nutr J. 2008;7:11.
Sale C, Harris RC, Delves S, Corbett J. Metabolic and physiological effects of ingesting extracts of bitter orange, green tea and guarana at rest and during treadmill walking in overweight males. Int J Obes (Lond). Jan 17 2006.
Hoffman JR, Kang J, Ratamess NA, Jennings PF, Mangine GT, Faigenbaum AD. Effect of nutritionally enriched coffee consumption on aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance. J Strength Cond Res. May 2007;21(2):456-459.
Nakagawara M. [beta Phenylethylamine: psychopharmacological and clinical aspects]. Yakubutsu Seishin Kodo. Sep 1986;6(3):295-307.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

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